In this new edition of the poem Völuspá, we offer:
- A plain English translation, closely based on our word-for-word translation. Meaning is more important than sound in this translation, but it should be readily understood.
- A word-for-word translation. Here, one should be able to relate our choice of English words directly to the original.
- Notes on translation. These are given as an aid to understanding, as well as to draw attention to questions of interpretation and meaning.
- Glossary. This is a complete glossary, containing an entry for every word as it appears within the poem—making it easier to look up the Old Norse words and then cross-reference them to the more complete entries in Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson’s An Icelandic-English Dictionary.